Industrial uses include. Content Filtration 6. Other polypropylene uses is being used as food containers and does not break down easily when placed in contact with water, acids and detergents. Polyamide is better known as nylon and is a common material used in fabrics and sports equipment such as nets. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. ABS is used commonly in drainpipe systems, automotive parts, musical instruments and sporting equipment, such as. The joints are obtained by solvent welding. [gravityform id="1" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. having the property of softening or fusing when heated and of hardening and becoming rigid again when cooled. Another commonly known thermoplastic, used frequently in the production of clothing, bed wear and other household fabrics. It is created by modifying crystal styrene with rubber, which gives it its impressive resistance to impacts. Nylon-11 is produced by self-condensation of 11 amino undecanove acid with a linear monomer containing eleven carbon atoms. (iii) It is attacked by aromatics and soluble in ketones and esters. PVC can be manufactured in expanded or cellular form. (iii) It is highly resistant to weathering. Two broad categories of plastic materials exist: thermoplastics and thermosets, which are differentiated based on their behaviors in the presence of heat. They are the polymer of methyl methacrylate having trade name Perspex. saran. It can undergo high levels of stress without cracking or breaking. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. (vii)The hard type of PVC is formulated with less plasticizer than the general purpose grade and shows less tendency to flow at high temperature which is an advantage when the cables are to be laid in very hot surroundings. Also, you may want to use our Plastic Material Selection Guide or Interactive Thermoplastics Triangle to assist with the material selection process based on your application requirements. Copyright 10. thermoplastics, materials that soften or melt when heated and harden when cooled. Polypropylene 4. The properties of PVC (flexible) are given in Table 9.1. Acrylics 7. This review is restricted to unreinforced and short fibre reinforced thermoplastics where the reinforcing fibre (usually glass or carbon) is typically less than 2-3 mm in length. i.e., As a moulding compound they have good qualities and the ability to withstand high heat (upto 260°C). (i) Its resistance to chemicals is better than that of polyethylene. (vi) As insulation in submarine cables and radar lines. It is often used to protect assets, such as parcels in transit or valuable machinery and is low cost and easy to produce. 6. This design tip offers a few considerations to keep in mind when using these materials. thermoplastic. The two reactants are mixed in a reaction at a high temperature and moderate pressure, using copper as a catalyst. Polycarbonate is easily worked, moulded and thermoformed, making it a popular material in the construction industry. (vii) Lining for lagoons to avoid seepage of polluted water into the underground. It is manufactured by addition polymerization of propylene. Another common thermoplastic, polypropylene (PP) is very flexible, rendering it perfect for such applications as athletic clothing, rugs and car parts that need to be bent into position. celluloid. Pages in category "Thermoplastics" The following 81 pages are in this category, out of 81 total. It isn’t quite a case of ‘one size fits all’ – choosing the right materials for the job is probably the most crucial step of the plastic injection moulding process cycle. (iii) They have low water absorption and resistance to creep or cold flow. (viii) Fan and blower casing (gas filled polythene). Acrylic is popular for its attractive finish and its versatile nature. plastic. This is obtained by low pressure polymerisation process. Abstracted/Indexed in. Some types of thermoplastics are expensive, strong & used in place of metal, while the others are used in common everyday products, They are easy to mold & shape when they are hot, They can turn to liquid at high temperatures, When they are cooled, They turn into hard & solid plastic, The keyboards & compact disc cases are made of the thermoplastics. When thermoplastics are heated, they melt to a liquid. They are molten when heated and harden upon cooling. (ii) It has high flexibility, good heat distortion resistance and fatigue strength. In this process both the reactions, i.e., hexamethylene diamine and adipic acid contain six carbon atoms, thus, the, nylon so produced is called 6.6. The silica is reduced to silicon, which is one of the starting materials. Polycarbonate (PC) thermoplastics are known under trademarks such as Lexan, Makrolon, Makroclear, and arcoPlus. The method allows almost any shape to be created, meeting almost every manufacturing need. Developed in Europe in the 1950s, this thermoplastic can be classified as either high-density polyethene (HDPE) or low-density polyethene (LDPE). Polyethylenes are obtainable as various liquids, gums and tough flexible solids suitable for moulding. This is obtained by high pressure process. The other reactant is methyl chloride, prepared by chlorinating methane gas. Polyester fabrics also highly stain resistant. They have been used for battery-cell plugs, stoppers, electrical-mouldings of the cheaper class etc. They are ideal for. They have both the stability of inorganic products and the versatility of organic. (ii) It is highly crystalline material and does not soften at high temperature (It retains its strength upto + 300°C and – 200°C). b. (i) It has good electrical properties and negligible water absorption. (ix) Office items like desk calendars, pen stands, trays etc. These are applied extensively in automotive, electronics and other industrial sectors. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are as essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. (i) PTFE is completely inert, chemically (owing to the presence of strong carbon fluorine covalent bonds of extreme stability). Acrylics 7. When cooled, thermoplastics return to solid. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. Polyvinylchloride 3. (iv) It has low abrasion resistance and low softening temperature. (vi) They have very high softening temperatures and thus moulding becomes difficult. So, below is a list of the most common thermoplastics used in injection moulding. (v) They are soluble in ketones, aldehydes, esters and some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Polythene. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Nylon-10 is produced by condensation reaction between hexamethylene diamine and sebacic acid. saran. The condensation reaction takes place between the acid group at one side and amino group at other side of the same molecule. Thermoset and Thermoplastics are two separate forms of polymer powders, which are differentiated based on their behavior when reacting to the application of heat. (iv) Its resistance to impact invariably deteriorates with time. Acrylic is rigid with strong impact resistance. All of these types can be melted down many times and re-shaped into different forms. (ii) Flexible over a wide temperature range. Account Disable 12. It is extremely tough and resistant to wear and tear. It has a variable crystalline structure that allows for a vast range of applications. But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. A high strength plastic is obtained by addition polymerisation in presence of SnCl4 catalyst. Silicones 9. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Polycarbonates do not have a unique resin identification code. 30+ Million Readerbase. Definition of List of Thermoplastics in the Medical Dictionary by The Free Dictionary For example, a foam cup is a thermoplastic material that can be heated and turned into a dish. ADVERTISEMENTS: Important thermoplastic materials are described as follows: 1. (ix) PVC has a tendency to decompose when it is heated or exposed to sunlight with the liberation of hydrochloric acid gas. This opaque thermoplastic is a terpolymer, made up of the three polymers, acrylonitrile, butadiene and styrene. Thermoplastics offer many advantages over traditional materials, including: low density; low energy for manufacture; low processing costs; and the ability to make complex shapes relatively easily. ABS (Acrylonitric Butadiene Styrene) 8. (i) ABS materials are tough, hard and rigid. It is important to distinguish what type of thermoplastic should be used for the type of product you want us to help you create. Thermoplastics Introduction. Prohibited Content 3. (viii) PTFE with 30% glass fiber filling has a much increased resistance to creep (and is therefore, used for gaskets and valve seats where good creep resistance is required). When frozen, however, a thermoplastic becomes glass-like and subject to fracture. It is the oldest known plastic and was employed about 3000 B.C. Because of their unique chemical properties, thermoplastic materials can be remolded and recycled without negatively affecting the material’s physical properties. The terms thermoplastic and thermoset stand for how a material is or can be processed under a changed temperature [1]. Polystyrene 6. It can be fabricated into desired shapes by hot processing and sintering the polymer powder. However, it is attacked by concentrated acids, but not by alkalies. Bitumen. (vi) Freedom from taste and colour and physiologically harmless nature makes polystyrene suitable for use in contact with foodstuffs. 30+ Million Website Visitors. They are mechanically weak and have poor chemical resistance. Literature from organizations such as the International Association of Plastics Distribution (IAPD) split plastics up into those two columns. Thermoplastics and elastomers have been deeply investigated for biomedical applications and will be further detailed later (see ... thermosetting polyesters, unsaturated polyesters, vinyl esters, silicones, and phenolics; it should be noted that this list is continually expanding. It has been compounded for a wide range of products and is extremely versatile. PET (polyethylene terephthalate) :- Light, rigid or semi-rigid, naturally transparent or colorless, PET is an excellent moisture and gas barrier and is resistant to impacts. The difference between Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics? Important thermoplastic materials are described as follows: 1. Privacy Policy 9. (i) They are wax like in appearance, translucent, odourless and one of the lightest plastics. It is available in two forms namely flexible and rigid. These reviews at the bottom based on personal experience. (x) Housewares like water jugs, mugs, tumblers, plates, trays etc. (i) The main use of nylon is in the manufacture of fiber and yarn. (v) They have poor resistance to ultra violet rays and weathering. Terms of Service 7. It is stronger and more rigid material than polyethylene owing to the presence of CH3 group attached to the linear molecular chains. A few of ABS plastic properties is that it can be modified to produce the exact levels of impact resistance, toughness and heat resistance that the manufacturer needs by moulding it at a high or low temperature. Polythene is prone to degradation and embrittlement by sunlight due to cross linking but performance can be improved by addition of black pigments such as carbon black, which absorbs rays and prevents damage. Polyester offers excellent chemical resistance, dimensional stability and a high toughness-stiffness balance. The desired products are then hydrolysed and condensed to form silicon polymers. Thermoplastics are plastic polymers that soften when they are heated, allowing for molding, and solidify again as they are cooled. The differences between thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics are explained using examples of jewellery made from thermosetting plastic. Polythenes, in particular LDPE, have high permeability to gases; they are therefore, not considered for gas service. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), is an opaque thermoplastic and amorphous polymer. The combination produces a flexible, very light material that can be moulded into a plethora of everyday items and components for use in everyday life. One way to explain the difference between thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, is to consider an omelet. Nylon is produced from the condensation polymerisation reaction between hexaethylene diamine and adipic acid. Nylon-6 is produced by self-condensation of caprolactam which is an amino acid with six carbon atoms. It loses its crystallinity on heating above 325°C. (i) It is hard, rigid and transparent; it possesses high impact strength. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. The basic ingredients consist of silica and coke which are mixed and placed in an electric furnace. It is non-toxic and so can be produced to fit FDA grades and be used as containers for consumable goods. High heat thermoplastics are also often considered as replacements for thermoset polymers such as epoxy, phenolic, polyester, etc. (i) The flexible types are strong, tear resistant, and have good ageing properties. The mer of PTFE is represented as CF2 = CF2. It can be easily extruded and moulded into the desired form. If your interest in plastic extends beyond your application at hand and you start to dig the chemical makeup and processes to make plastic you may come across the terms “amorphous” and “semi-crystalline” thermoplastics. High Impact List of Articles. Thermoplastics have been extensively used in numerous automotive and transportation applications. Disclaimer 8. They are a chemical hybrid, a cross between organic and inorganic materials. There are more than 40 types, including acrylic, polypropylene, polycarbonate and polyethylene. This quality makes thermoplastics recyclable. PMMA is manufactured by addition polymerisation of methyl methacrylate in presence of a peroxide catalyst. (ii) They possess hard surface, dimensional stability, chemical resistance and heat resistance. For chemically resistant plastic, view our Chemical Resistance of Plastics chart. (iv) They are brittle at low temperature, translucent and flammable. They are used as high heat resistant insulations. Thermoplastics are linear or slightly branched polymers that are formed by addition polymerization process (Hasirci et al., 2011). This thermoplastic comes into its own when a strong, transparent material is required. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Plastics fit into two categories – Thermoplastics and Thermosetting plastics. This makes thermoplastics an ideal material for injection molding. (iii) High resistivity and dielectric strength. A polymer material that becomes pliable with heat, and with sufficient temperature, a liquid. Following is a list of types of thermoplastics and their most common uses: ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene): Because this material is lightweight but has high-impact resistance and mechanical toughness, it is often used as a material in toys, appliances, telephones, cell phones, microwaves, musical instruments and safety hats. The examples of Thermoplastics are as follows. The main physical difference is how they respond to high temperatures. Polyamides 11. (viii) Although its electrical properties are not so good as those of rubber, it offers more resistance to oxygen, ozone and sunlight. This is the cheapest and most widely used plastic. Containers for consumable goods, tumblers, plates, trays etc of applications Protective and decorative housings for telephones radios. 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This material originated in England was produced commercially in the manufacture of fiber yarn. Etc., but not by alkalies heat distortion resistance and low softening temperature flexible types are strong, material!