Nematodes: Root-knot (Meloidogyne), ring (Criconemoides), stunt (Tylenchorhynchus), sting (Belonolaimus), and spiral (Helicotylenchus) nematodes are seldom seen due to their microscopic size. Prevention & Treatment: Remove and destroy badly spotted leaves, prune to improve air circulation and overcrowding, and clean up and destroy fallen leaves. 2 Neem oil extract or botanical oil sprays may also reduce plant damage by repelling many insect pests. A 2% solution of horticulture oil may be sprayed when temperatures are between 45 and 90 °F. They range from 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter and may be nearly flat to almost spherical in shape. Tea scale likes the undersides of camellia and holly leaves. Black Root Rot: Black root rot is caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. Soft scales include black scale, brown soft scale, Kuno scale, lecanium scales, and tuliptree scale. Japanese hollies (I. cenata) are very intolerant of poorly drained soils and are especially prone to root rot. These turn reddish-brown and finally black by fall. BIOLOGY OF THE SOFT BROWN SCALE , COCCU S HE SP ERIDU.-i . This is usually applied prior to new growth to kill both adults and their eggs. Check for mites by looking at the undersurface of leaves in early spring or by shaking a branch over white paper. Avoid the use of spray pesticides (both insecticides and fungicides), as well as soil-applied, systemic insecticides unless absolutely necessary. Often, the root system will continue to disintegrate until the plant dies. Monitor the crawler emergence with sticky cards, double-faced tape wrapped around a branch, or by putting an infested shoot or leaf into a baggie and watching for crawler movement. Florida wax scale (Ceroplastes floridensis) on Chinese holly (Ilex cornuta).United States National Collection of Scale Insects Photographs Archive, USDA Agricultural Research Service, www.forestryimages.org. Planting too deeply and over-mulching may also contribute to disease development. The adult female inserts eggs into young leaves through puncture wounds made by her ovipositor. Finally, ants farm soft scale insects. 1) Azalea bark scale, Eriococcus azalea A scale infestation is indicated by sooty mold on leaves, yellowing of leaves, and twig dieback. Most parasitic nematodes feed by a stylet, sucking juices from plant cells. Avoid using contact insecticides unless the plant is very valuable and in serious danger from scale. This “spine spot” is often confused with the slits made by the holly leafminer. Soft Scales (Coccidae) Over 60 species of soft scales occur in Florida. During the growing season use horticultural oil or insecticidal soap to conserve beneficials. Infected roots are dark brown to black, usually starting at the root tips. Female tea scale covers are brown and boat-shaped. Look for lady beetles and other beneficial insect populations associated with scale infestation. Crawler activity often coincides with the flush of new plant growth in the spring. This fungus primarily affects the root system and reduces plant vigor. Scale insects are small, inconspicuous insects that use hair-like mouthparts to extract plant sap from leaves or branches. More than one spray may be required. Woods with a higher rating are harder than woods with a lower rating. Inspect your holly bush to confirm that a soft scale infestation is causing the black sooty mold. Cottony camellia scale is a soft scale that feeds on camellia, holly, yew, euonymus, sweetbox, and maple. Cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi, can infest a number of woody ornamentals and certain crops ().Common hosts in California are citrus, cocculus, nandina, and pittosporum. REC, Dogwood Insect Pests: Identification and Management, Flowering Dogwood Trees: Selection, Care, and Management of Disease Problems, Why Are Leyland Cypress Trees Turning Brown, Azaleas and Rhododendrons: Common Diseases and Abiotic Problems, Boxwood: Preventing and Managing Common Pests and Diseases, Diagnosing Problems of Azaleas and Rhododendrons, Ornamental Fruit Trees: Preventing, Diagnosing, and Managing Problems. Scale insects also secrete a sticky liquid called honeydew, which promotes the fungal disease black sooty mold. Informational table showing disease name, symptoms, pathogen/cause, and management of Holly diseases. Good spray coverage of the lower leaf surfaces is important, as most mites will feed there. Check other nearby woody plants for infestations. If spraying is required, always spray late in the evening to reduce the direct impact on pollinating insects. Nymphs create the white, frothy spittlemass, which helps keep them moist and protects them from predators and parasites. Southern red mite adults are reddish brown and less than 1/50-inch long. Some, such as ... Cottony Scale The bane of many holly growers, cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera, is also called cottony taxus scale. One of the most distinguishing features in determining soft scale versus armored scale infestations is the production of copious amounts of clear, sticky liquid called honeydew. They lay white cottony ovisacs (egg masses) on the. Cottony camellia scale is a soft scale that feeds on camellia, holly, yew, euonymus, sweetbox, and maple. This causes a scalding, followed by invasion of secondary organisms and finally by scorching. Spray with horticultural oil in the spring after the plants have begun growing and the danger of cold weather has passed. Identification of the scale is important as it may aid in better control. Holly pit scale (Asterolecanium puteanum) is a pest on American, ‘Burford’, Japanese, and Yaupon hollies. On extensively infested hosts, there is a general decline in plant health, with limb or branch death, and possibly plant death. The cottony camellia scale is most commonly reported on holly in Kentucky, but it is also found on other hosts, including yew, euonymous, maple, and hydrangea. Crawlers settle on undersides of leaves and begin to feed on leaves during June. The larvae are about 1/16-inch long. It is also reported on beautyberry, jasmine, mulberry, and hydrangea. A second generation of eggs is laid, again in turfgrass, where the nymphs will feed. Prevention & Treatment: Hollies grown under stress are much more sensitive to root rot disease than are well-maintained, vigorous plants. LINN ., AND . The cottony white egg sacs of this soft scale appear on undersides of leaves (Figure 1) in May and egg hatch (Figure 2) occurs during June. It is important that you monitor their development carefully and regularly in order to determine the optimum time to spray. Photo Credit: ©2005 Buglady Consulting Florida wax scale is found along the leaf veins of holly. Wax scale can be 3-8mm in diameter and are white, cream, pink, or gray. OREGON STATE COLLEGE . Hatching occurs through much of the year rather than in discrete generations. Flip an adult scale over, and if there is a separate soft body beneath the hard shell, it is an armored scale. Common Soft Scales Wax scale – There are many species of wax scale that look similar (Figure 1). Those ants will protect the source of their honeydew. Scale insects (armored scales, soft scales) All types of woody ornamentals and trees. These products should be applied when mites are present and again in seven to 10 days. Drought Damage: Holly leaves often turn yellow or brown during a sudden drought period. Plants with extensive root rot damage will usually decline and die during dry periods.Prevention & Tr… Scale insects feed on shrubs' sap using their long, piercing mouthparts, causing twig and branch dieback and sometimes killing the plants. The creamy colored 'bumps' on the stems of your holly tree are most likely Indian Wax Scale. Always select hollies that are adapted to the local climate and soil conditions. There are two generations of two-lined spittlebugs in South Carolina, and this insect over-winters as eggs (generally laid in turfgrass). High soil moisture and low soil temperatures favor development of black root rot. Insecticidal soap sprays can provide control when applied before population numbers get too high. This leaf scorching is caused by the presence of water or ice on the leaves at the time the sun is shining brightly. of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Clemson UniversityClyde S. Gorsuch, PhD, Emeritus Faculty, Entomology, Clemson University, Joey Williamson, PhD, HGIC Horticulture Extension Agent, Clemson University. Plants with extensive root rot damage will usually decline and die during dry periods. Spray late in the day and when no rainfall is expected within 24 hours. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. As with all pesticides, read and follow all label instructions and precautions. They feed on sap by piercing the leaf or stem with their mouthparts and sucking. Wait 24 to 36 hours to make sure the … Indian wax scale (Ceroplases ceriferus) is a soft scale that may infest Chinese and Yaupon hollies. Florida red scale and purple scale attack citrus. American holly (I. opaca) cultivars are particularly susceptible to leafminer damage. Adults, eggs, and cast skins (white) of southern red mite (Oligonychus ilicis).John A. Weidhass, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, www.forestryimages.org. These insects can secrete a waxy covering that protects them from the environmen… Coccus hesperidum. Its leaves are very small and slow growing with a soft texture. Scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the superfamily Coccoidea.Adult females typically have soft bodies and no limbs, and are concealed underneath domed scales, extruding quantities of wax for protection. Leafminer damage has neither a gray center nor a purple halo. Insecticides labeled for homeowner use against scale crawlers include acephate, malathion, cyfluthrin, lambda- cyhalothrin, permethrin, and bifenthrin. Using sucking mouthparts, they feed on the undersides of leaves, where their fine webbing is often seen. Use pesticides only according to the directions on the label. For heavier infestations, spray with a horticultural oil in the early spring to kill adults. There are two types of scales, soft or bark scales and hard or armored scales (Tables 1 and 2), which can be differ-entiated by their feeding habits. The Soft Touch Holly shrub is a great all around shrub for your landscape design. Always try less toxic alternative sprays first for the control of insect pests and diseases. Purple Leaf Scorch: The most common leaf discoloration is a purplish blotch due to the environment rather than a fungus. Typically, yellowing of the leaves (particularly at the shoot tips), early leaf drop, slowed plant growth, and twig dieback are seen at early stages of the disease. by . Cottony taxus scale on yew. Scale insects generally look more like tiny growths on the foliage rather than actual bugs. Japanese hollies, particularly ‘Helleri’, are not very tolerant to low soil moisture, particularly for the first several years after planting. OF SOF'r d C \ L.E S . Dinotefuran may move into shrubs more quickly than imidacloprid for faster pest control. Heavy infestations in the spring may cause the leaves to turn light green. As an alternative, a soil application of dinotefuran or imidacloprid is effective in controlling the larvae within the leaves. Yaupon holly (I. vomitoria) and American holly (I. opaca) are moderately resistant, while Japanese hollies (I. crenata) are very susceptible to black root rot. Drench = Add to water and pour around base of plant. See Table 1 for examples of products containing these active ingredients. It is also known as cottony taxus scale. For example, sprays with insecticidal soap, horticultural oil, neem oil extract, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t. Symptoms include yellow spots on the upper surface of infested leaves on camellia. It produces long, narrow and unavoidably obvious ovisacs on … HOLLY . CONTROL . There are over 180 species of scale insects in Florida, but only a small percentage are important pests of ornamental plants (Dekle 1976; Hamon and Williams 1984). The scale used in the table is pounds-force. Black Root Rot: Black root rot is caused by the fungus Thielaviopsis basicola. Soft scale is covered with a protective waxy substance and is somewhat easier to kill than hard/armored scale. The fungus thrives in areas with poor drainage and warm soils. Spine Spot: Small, gray spots with purple halos are caused by the puncturing of the leaves by the spines of adjacent holly leaves. ), or botanical oils can help control many small insect pests and mites that affect garden and landscape plants. Control: With a light infestation, homeowners can handpick and destroy infested leaves. submitted to . Leaves may turn a bronze color and then drop. Scale … The paths they follow turn yellowish brown and typically broaden into a blotch. WARREN CLIFFORD ADLERZ . Disease Syptoms Pathogen/Cause Management; Leaf scorch: Circular to irregular, tan spots appear in early spring or summer. The drainage of existing areas can be improved by using raised beds. In contrast, the waxy secretion of soft scale is an integral, inseparable portion of the body. Scales are unusual insects in appearance. Some soft scales may bear their young alive. Marjan Kluepfel, Former HGIC Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson UniversityJanet McLeod Scott, Former Horticulture Information Specialist, Clemson UniversityJames H. Blake, EdD, Extension Associate/Adjunct Professor, Dept. In South Carolina, the native holly leafminer (Phytomyza ilicicola) is the most common. Photo Credit: ©2006 Buglady Consulting Black sooty mold was found on these magnolia leaves. Read and follow all label instructions and precautions. A soil drench with dinotefuran applied to the soil will control both soft and armored scales. The nymph (immature stage) is white or yellowish and without wings. All recommendations are for South Carolina conditions and may not apply to other areas. Leafminers are the larvae (immature forms) of small (about ⅛-inch in length) black and gray flies. Updated: July 31, 2016. Some species may be found on the branches as well. Use raised beds in landscape plantings to provide good drainage. Its cottony egg sac and profuse honeydew production make cottony cushion scale easy to spot in the landscape. The newly hatched crawlers move about the plant for a few days to several weeks before attaching to feed. Scales vary in appearance depending on age, sex, and species. Control: In late summer or early fall when damage occurs, apply an insecticidal spray to control the adult feeding. Scale Look-Alikes To avoid introducing these pathogens, purchase hollies with healthy roots and good foliage color. Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service offers its programs to people of all ages, regardless of race, color, gender, religion, national origin, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, gender identity, marital or family status and is an equal opportunity employer. Honeydew (a sticky substance produced by the scale insects as they feed) and sooty mold (a black fungus that grows on top of the honeydew, see photo below) are the primary problems caused by this insect. These products contain imidacloprid, which will move up and throughout the shrub and protect the holly from most insect damage for a year. However, it is the resulting second generation of adults that cause the most damage, both in lawns, but also in nearby ornamentals, such as on certain types of hollies. The soft scales are commonly identified scales on ornamental plants and can be quite variable. Repeat this application after 10 days to better control the crawlers, adults, and eggs by smothering them. Foliar systemic insecticides labeled for use by the homeowner include acephate or spinosad can be sprayed during May for control of larvae within mines. For more information, contact the Clemson Extension Home & Garden Information Center. Scale – While light infestations of scale can usually be controlled by hand, scale control for heavier infestations generally requires the use of horticultural oil. Aboveground symptoms may include stunting of terminal growth, shortening of internodes, and interveinal chlorosis. 2  Armored scale secretes a hard shell over its body for protection from predators. Follow the product label for rate and application directions. All scales have piercing- ... (Figure 15), holly, privet, and pachysandra, causing yellow or white spotting on leaves. Later, one or more limbs may wilt and die back to the main trunk, and a brown to black streak of dead tissue may extend from one area of rotted roots to the damaged limb. 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