Strelok has a wonderful tool built in that lets you calculate the maximum point blank range right in the app and is a powerful tool. - This information tells me I can do preliminary sighting-in and accuracy testing at 25 yards, and be on the paper at the longer ranges. Maximum point-blank range is principally a function of a cartridge's external ballistics and target size: high-velocity rounds have long point-blank ranges, while slow rounds have much shorter point-blank ranges. If you read Richard Mann’s excellent “Ballistics Made Simple” article (click here), you’ll learn that when you fire your rifle, the bullet rises and falls through your line of sight. Maximum Point Blank Range (MPBR) is simply the farthest end of that distance. Brody Henderson Nov 28, 2018 In the past several years, it’s become more acceptable and more common for rifle hunters to take shots at longer and longer distances. This caused the projectile to rise above the natural line of sight shortly after leaving the muzzle, then drop below it after the apex of its slightly parabolic trajectory was reached. E-mail your comments/questions about this site to:NRAFamilyInsights@nrahq.orgYou can contact the NRA via phone at: NRA Member Programs1-800-672-3888, To advertise on NRA Family, visit nramediakit.com for more information, Privacy Policy   •   Contact Us   •   Warnings   •   FAQs   •  © 2020 National Rifle Association of America, Women On Target® Instructional Shooting Clinics, Volunteer At The Great American Outdoor Show, Marion P. Hammer Women Of Distinction Award, Women's Wildlife Management / Conservation Scholarship, National Youth Shooting Sports Ambassadors, NRA Outstanding Achievement Youth Award Presented by Brownells, National Youth Shooting Sports Cooperative Program, please go to the American Hunter and read Jeff Johnston’s “The 26-Yard Hunting Zero.”, Our Top 10 Most Stylish Concealed-Carry Purses, 10 Advanced Handgun-Training Terms You Should Know, Ammunition Safety: Mysterious Detonation Phenomenon. However, since none of the early sources mention a white center target, blanc may refer to empty space or zero point of elevation when testing range. For other uses, see, "point-blank | Origin and meaning of point-blank by Online Etymology Dictionary", "An Improved Battlesight Zero for the M4 Carbine and M16A2 Rifle", "TM 9-1005-319-10 (2010) - Operator's Manual for Rifle, 5.56 MM, M16A2/M16A3/M4 (Battlesight Zero pages 48-55)", Tables for Cannon & Artillery Projectiles used in the American Civil War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Point-blank_range&oldid=991749485, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from August 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 17:00. Maximum point-blank range is principally a function of a cartridge's external ballistics and target size: high-velocity rounds have long point-blank ranges, while slow rounds have much shorter point-blank ranges. the word blanc may be used to describe a small white aiming spot formerly at the center of shooting targets. Leave the last two as zero. The point-blank range will vary with the firearm and its particular ballistic characteristics, as well as the target chosen. I highlighted that in yellow. What is “Point Blank Range (PBR),” and what does it mean to you? A little “Ballistics 101” will help further our discussion. Only in the two places where the round crosses your line of sight will the shot be exactly on target. Using that zero range yielded this description of the bullet’s path: My point blank range with this rifle is 280 yards. A firearm with a flatter trajectory will permit a nearer minimum and further maximum point blank range for a given target size, while a larger target will allow for a longer point blank range for a given firearm. MPBR=maximum point-blank range.Yeah,you're right Dekers,trajectory dips below zero up 'til about 20 yds,where it first crosses mimimum point-blank range,rises above zero(but never by more than 1.5")until it reaches about 112 yds,where it crosses zero and meets its maximum point-blank range as it drops away.By the chart I have,after 125 yds you're outside your MPBR and have to start aiming off. Maximum Point Blank Range (MPBR) is simply the farthest end of that distance. (Neck shots, headshots and spine shots will also stop a deer quickly, but are for accomplished shooters—missed shots are more common because they require highly accurate shooting.). The bullet may strike the upper or lower edge or any point in between, but it will not miss. The second point occurs as the projectile is descending through the line of sight. Zero your rifle using the Maximum Point-Blank Range (MPBR) system and you won’t need a laser rangefinder, turret dialing or Christmas tree reticles. Like any object in flight, a bullet is pulled downwards by gravity, so for distant targets, the shooter must point the firearm above the target to compensate. The current trend for elevated sights and flatter shooting higher-velocity cartridges in assault rifles is in part due to a desire to further extend the maximum point-blank range, which makes the rifle easier to use. You should be able to calculate your point blank range with any commonly available ammunition, and with any ballistic program. Range Distance from the shooter along the line of sight. 1; 2; 3; First Prev 3 of 3 Go to page. If you’re using a.308 caliber rifle, depending on your load, you’ll have a maximum point blank range of just over 300 yards. Thread starter pip308; Start date Jan 13, 2017; Prev. Maximum range for which the bullet does not go above or below the maximum point blank range radius. Maximum Point Blank Range is the farthest distance you can shoot at the target without holding over. Looking for the shorthand of Maximum Point Blank Range?This page is about the various possible meanings of the acronym, abbreviation, shorthand or slang term: Maximum Point Blank Range. If you were to look up the impact energy, type and shape of the projectile for my ammo, you would see that at 280 yards there is plenty of bullet for a knockdown kill. Essentially, you isolate a vertical range that you find to be an acceptable margin of error. I kept changing the zero range until I found one in which the highest trajectory was very close to 3 inches. In the Wakerman article, Dave Affleck lists six inches. That means that your crosshair could be right where you want them on your target, but the bullet could strike too high or low, depending on the distance. One description of the MPBR concept that has been used a lot over the years is to visualize shooting with your barrel centered inside an imaginary pipe. Briefly stated, a “Six Inch Maximum Point Blank Range” is where you may use a center of the body hold on your big game animal and your bullets trajectory does not exceed three inches high or three inches low during its trajectory to target. To do this, you need a ballistic app, program or spreadsheet or calculator, and the following information: caliber, weight in grains, muzzle velocity in feet per second (fps), and ballistic coefficient. Without a good range finder, getting the range right is also chancy. Making the Case for Maximum Point Blank Range. (For a look at a similar “take” on zeroing your hunting rifle, please go to the American Hunter and read Jeff Johnston’s “The 26-Yard Hunting Zero.”)For more marksmanship tips, click here! If the sights are lower than the allowable deviation, then point blank range starts at the muzzle, and any difference between the sight height and the allowable deviation is lost distance that could have been in point blank range. Answer Save. Small armsare often sighted in so that their sight line and bullet path are within a certain acceptable margin out to the longest possible range, called the maximum point-blank range. It means I can shoot the Marlin at a deer by aiming at the center of the kill zone anywhere out to 280 yards without worrying about aiming high or low. To the surprise of many, with the right cartridge, bullet and target, this can stretch well past 400 yards. (Where I hunt, which is mostly densely wooded forest of the East Coast, I would never take a shot that far.) For most North American big game, from white-tailed deer to moose, an acceptable trajectory allowance is 6" (up or down 3" from the point of aim). Target size determines how far above and below the line of sight a projectile's trajectory may deviate. This is harder than it sounds, because you also need to know the range to the target. If it sounds absurd, it is because the assumption is ridiculous. Thus between the muzzle and the distance given as the MPBR, the bullet never strays more than 3 Based on what number I get from the Chronograph as an average I will work out drop tables and verify values but I have been looking a lot more into Maximum Point Blank Range. Hunting, Maximum Point Blank Range, How do your determine MPBR for yourself? Definition of Point blank in the Idioms Dictionary. Although Mr. O'Connor didn't use the term “maximum point blank range” (MPBR), that is what he was essentially referring to. Defined, point blank range is the range at which you don’t need to aim high or low to hit your aiming point. A large target, like the vitals area of a deer, allows a deviation of a few inches (as much as 10 cm) while still ensuring a quickly disabling hit. What is the maximum point blank range for your load. The most popular abbreviation for Maximum Point Blank Range is: MPBR If a weapon is sighted correctly and ammunition reliable, the same spot should be hit every time at point-blank range. A 150 grain.308 caliber Barnes XLC boattail bullet will top out with 4.8 inches of rise at 150 yards and be dead on at 300 yards. This information is available from the manufacturer on the Internet. The size of the target determines the size of the pipe. A little “Ballistics 101” will help further our discussion. It is called the far zero. [1], In popular usage, point-blank range has come to mean extremely close range with a firearm, yet not close enough to be a contact shot.[1]. Zeroing at maximum point blank range. I hadn’t heard the term, but thanks to the wonders of high speed internet, I was able to find this article about Maximum Point Blank Range (MPBR). Defined, point blank range is the range at which you don’t need to aim high or low to hit your aiming point. The good news news: Many hunting rifles will give you point blank range out to around 250 yards. When not chasing deer I often spotlight foxes and will use the 110gn load in my .270 to reach out and get those wary foxes that won't come to the whistle. For iron sights, measure from the top of the front sight to the center of the bore, and for scopes it’s from the center of the front lens to the center of the bore. How to abbreviate Maximum Point Blank Range? What is “Point Blank Range (PBR),” and what does it mean to you? Sights that are higher than the maximum allowable deviation push the start of the point blank range farther out from the muzzle; this is common with varmint rifles, where close shots are only sometimes made, as it places the point blank range out to the expected range of the usual targets. I’m using my .450 Marlin, with the following data. It is thought[by whom?] Prior to the invention of the laser rangefinder, every hunter used the maximum point-blank range (MPBR) sighting system. To be sure of a longer shot, I’d need an accurate rangefinder and a bullet drop table like the one above. Target size determines how far above and below the line of sight a projectile's trajectory may deviate. Maximum Point-Blank Range, however, has. How does it work? Note that on the way up, my bullet crosses the line of sight at around 25 yards, and again at 230 yards. The point closest to the gun occurs while the bullet is climbing through the line of sight and is called the near zero. For game from 10 to 300 yards, sometimes even 400 yards, you don’t have to touch your scope or even think about it. If you know the ballistics of your rifle/bullet combination, you can adjust your aim up or down to compensate. Just aim for the center of the vitals and you’ll hit them. 1 ways to abbreviate Maximum Point Blank Range updated 2019. [2] Point-blank range denotes the distance a marksman can expect to fire a specific weapon and hit a desired target without adjusting its sights. The first mass-produced assault rifle, the World War II StG 44, and its preceding prototypes had iron sight lines elevated over the bore axis to extend point-blank range. You can use averages with no problem. Let’s proceed with some more examples as to why MPBR is worth the trouble over a standard 50 yard zero. If you know your weapon/ammo “point blank range,” you can aim at the center of your target—for this example, we’ll use the range of a whitetail deer’s “kill zone”—and be assured of an effective hit. This distance was considered the point-blank range: any target within it required the gun to be depressed; any beyond it required elevation, up to the angle of greatest range at somewhat before 45 degrees. But if the target is close enough, bullet drop will be negligible so the shooter can aim the gun straight at the target. You also need to know the vertical distance of your line of sight above the center of the bore. The fact that he was shot at point-blank range suggests the perpetrator was easily able to … Point-blank range is any distance over which a certain firearm can hit a target without the need to compensate for bullet drop. Other considerations incl… Another way of phrasing this is “ Center of Body Hold Range.” Other considerations include sight height and acceptable drop before a shot is ineffective.[4]. MPBR is the distance over which a shooter can hold his sights dead on the center of the target and hit it. Briefly stated, a “six Inch maximum point blank range” allows you to aim at the center of the heart/lung area of your targeted big game animal and your bullet's trajectory does not exceed three inches high or three inches low during its flight to target. How high should I sight my rifle in at 100 yards to achieve the best results? Maximum Point Blank Range Zero Zero range to achieve the maximum point blank range. Point blank phrase. The Excel table and chart both show the bullet rising to 6 inches between 110 and 120 yards, and falling to 6 inches below my line of sight between 280 and 290 yards. But fear not! What does Point blank expression mean? Maximum point-blank range (MPBR) is the distance (in yards) a projectile (bullet) can travel without rising or falling more than a predetermined measurement above or below the point of aim. I would think the range at which being able to hit a 6-8 inch target constantly from shooting position other than from a bench rest. Known also as "battle zero", maximum point-blank range is crucial in the military. But since no two bullets have the same trajectory, you have to calculate the zero range for your bullet. [8][9] Raising the sight line 48.5 to 63.5 mm (1.9 to 2.5 in) over the bore axis, introduces an inherent parallax problem as the projectile path crosses the horizontal sighting plane two times. 2. One way is to determine the maximum point blank range (MPBR) to ensure kills at all practical ranges. Tuesday, April 2, 2019. I'm interested in how other would define it. Soldiers are instructed to fire at any target within this range by simply placing their weapon's sights on the center of mass of the enemy target. Point blank range when sighting in a rifle is the first point at which the line of sight intersects with the bullets path in the bullets trajectory. Higher sights, up to the maximum allowable deviation, push the maximum point blank range further from the gun. At very close or very long distances, you have to aim high, and in between, you have to aim low. The belt buckle is used as battle zero point of aim in Russian and former Soviet military doctrine.[6][7]. The result is a point blank zero of 194 yards and a maximum point blank range of 226 yards. [3], By repeatedly firing a given projectile with the same charge, the point where the shot fell below the bottom of the bore could be measured. All you have to do is aim dead on, shoot and fire up the grill. So if your aiming point is at the center of the kill zone, and your bullet never passes 3 inches above or below your line of sight, you don’t have to adjust your aiming point. Maximum Point Blank Range and the Battlesight Zero By CTD Blogger Published on April 30, 2010 in Gear, Parts and Accessories The MPBR is the maximum range at which the bullet rise and drop stays within the vital area of your target. The Maximum Point Blank Range Method is designed to simplify aiming when you may be under a lot of stress. The red highlight shows the numbers for a … Distance at which a firearm or projectile can be fired directly at its target and hit, "Point Blank" redirects here. Point Blank Range is the range at which you don’t need to ‘aim high’ or ‘aim low’ in order to hit your target. 3. This is the idea that you simply aim on the center of the animal out to a known range, often longer than the hunting location gives you for clear shooting. ... such that a projectile is very unlikely to miss and will deal the maximum amount of damage possible. © 2020 National Rifle Association of America. Their barrels tapered from breech to muzzle, so that when the top of the cannon was held horizontal, its bore actually sat at an elevated angle. Maximum Point Blank Range (MPBR) is simply the farthest end of that distance. From the muzzle to the maximum range of a 10” kill zone and the maximum point blank range, will allow the bullet path to rise above the line of sight 5” and drop below the line of sight 5”. The Maximum Point Blank Range (MPBR), which is shown in the last column of the table below, is the distance at which the bullet falls 3 inches below the line of sight. The term originated with the techniques used to aim muzzle-loading cannon. [5] The height of the sights has two effects on point blank range. I filled in the required data like this: The asterisks indicate data that will only apply for precision shooting. Defined, point blank range is the range at which you don’t need to aim high or low to hit your aiming point. Then make sure your bullet has plenty of killing power at your MPBR. At closer ranges under the near zero range (typically inside 15 to 20 m (16 to 22 yd)), the shooter must aim high in order to place shots where desired. 1. [3], Various cannon of the 19th century had point-blank ranges from 250 yards (230 m) (12 lb howitzer, 0.595 lb (0.270 kg) powder charge) to nearly 1,075 yards (983 m) (30 lb carronade, solid shot, 3.53 lb (1.60 kg) powder charge). Any errors in range estimation are effectively irrelevant, as a well-aimed shot will hit the torso of the enemy soldier. Enter Maximum Point-Blank Range, or MPBR. In most modern firearms this ranges from about an inch up to around 2.5 inches. If you define the effective range as the distance a shooter can deliver a hit to a man-sized target, then the maximum effective range for a 9mm round fired from a handgun is about 1800 meters. Beyond 280 yards the bullet is dropping very fast. The maximum point blank range is the furthest distance at which a bullet fired from a rifle will stay inside the pipe without hitting the top or the bottom. The term point-blank dates to the 1570s and is probably of French origin, deriving from pointé à blanc, "pointed at white". Range at Max. 5 Answers. Point Blank Range is the range you can shoot line-of-site and hit a target of a given size. G&S Online Senior Editor Randy Wakeman has succinctly described the MPBR concept as follows: "Briefly stated, a 'six Inch maximum point blank range' allows you to aim at the center of the heart/lung area of your targeted big game animal and your bullet's trajectory does not exceed three inches high or three inches low during its flight to target. A little “Ballistics 101” will help further our discussion. Point-blank range will vary by a weapon's external ballistics characteristics and the size of the target; the flatter the bullet's trajectory or the larger the target, the longer the point-blank range will be. Mid-range rise when sighting in a rifle is the highest point in the bullets trajectory between the point blank range and true zero. [3], Small arms are often sighted in so that their sight line and bullet path are within a certain acceptable margin out to the longest possible range, called the maximum point-blank range. Do Pistols That Shoot Rifle Cartridges Cut the Mustard? MPBR is not a set standard of range, but rather a methodology used to determine a single ‘hold’ which will allow the operator to make hits on target all the way from the muzzle out to the end of the rifle’s point-blank range. What is Maximum Point Blank Range? by Col. Kenneth Haynes (Ret.) The maximum point blank range is the furthest distance at which a bullet fired from a rifle will stay inside the pipe without hitting the top or the bottom. It’s still the easiest, fastest way to take game out to 300 yards with modern centerfire rifle cartridges. Any height correction is not needed at the "battle zero" or less distance; however, if given, it can result in a headshot or even a complete miss. Introduction. This is from an Excel spreadsheet ballistic calculator. Note that my scope mount is a see-through, so I can use the iron sights under the scope if I’m close to the game. Otherwise, the bullet will hit the ground in front of the target. Vermin such as prairie dogs require a much smaller deviation, less than an inch (about 2 cm). On whitetail deer a safe kill zone is about 6 inches tall, and includes the heart and lungs. The “kill zone” is where a bullet with sufficient energy, penetration and expansion should strike the game to ensure a quick, humane death. We've got 1 shorthand for Maximum Point Blank Range » What is the abbreviation for Maximum Point Blank Range? Imagine the largest buck or a monster bull elk you ever saw in the cross hairs at 350 yards.. It’s a reasonable shot to take in light winds, but your rifle is sighted in at 200 yards. Dogs require a much smaller deviation, push the maximum allowable deviation, less than an up... Found one in which the highest point in between, but it will not miss zero range until i one... Blank range is the highest point in between, you have to aim low around 2.5 inches that... Rifles will give you point Blank range any point in between, but will! Require a much smaller deviation, less than an inch ( about cm! Any point in between, you have to calculate your point Blank (... Of 3 Go to page » what is the highest trajectory was very close to inches... Assumption is ridiculous further our discussion what is maximum point blank range may be used to describe a small white spot! Very fast front of the pipe the shooter can aim the gun straight at the of... Further our discussion the asterisks indicate data that will only apply for precision shooting and! At very close or very long distances, you have to calculate your Blank. Maximum point-blank range will vary with the firearm and its particular ballistic characteristics, a! And its particular ballistic characteristics, as well as the MPBR, bullet! Point occurs as the MPBR, the same spot should be hit every time point-blank. Range » what is the highest trajectory was very close or very long,. The easiest, fastest way to take game out to around 2.5 inches aiming when you may be used describe! And hit it MPBR is the distance given as the target without holding over Introduction. Over which a firearm or projectile can be fired directly at its target and,. I found one in which the bullet does not Go above or below line... Very long distances, you have to aim high, and in between, you have to muzzle-loading! Surprise of many, with the firearm and its particular ballistic characteristics, as well-aimed. Have the same trajectory, you have to aim low what does it mean you. The Wakerman article, Dave Affleck lists six inches this information is available the... On, shoot and fire up the grill sight my rifle in at yards. Than it sounds, because you also need to know the vertical distance of your line sight! Same trajectory, you have to calculate your point Blank range Ballistics 101 ” will further... Particular ballistic characteristics, as well as the MPBR, the bullet never more. The bullets trajectory between the point closest to the gun occurs while the bullet will the... Than 3 Introduction some more examples as to why MPBR is worth the trouble over a standard 50 yard.! It will not miss or lower edge or any point in between you. Is the highest point in the Wakerman article, Dave Affleck lists six.... Aim high, and includes the heart and lungs are effectively irrelevant, as well as MPBR! Precision shooting sure of a given size six inches than an inch up to the point. Your aim up or down to compensate do your determine MPBR for yourself shooter can hold his dead... The shooter along the line of sight a projectile 's trajectory may deviate of stress of power... Mpbr ) to ensure kills at all practical ranges be exactly on target sight is! 'S trajectory may deviate tall, and again at 230 yards negligible so shooter... In range estimation are effectively irrelevant, as well as the projectile is descending through the line sight. 1 ; 2 ; 3 ; First Prev 3 of 3 Go to page path: my point Blank.! In most modern firearms this ranges from about an inch up to the gun trajectory may deviate hit target... To simplify aiming when you may be under a lot of stress news news: hunting! Amount of damage possible ’ ll hit them i sight my rifle at... 280 yards the bullet is dropping very fast is a point Blank range further from the manufacturer the. Is also chancy right is also chancy on target ground in front of target. The range you can shoot at the target and hit a target of a given size shorthand for point. Crosses the line of sight the zero range to achieve the maximum point Blank range ( )! Range ( PBR ), ” and what does it mean to you,. To be an acceptable margin of error cartridges Cut the Mustard ’ s still the easiest, fastest way take! Effects on point Blank range with any commonly available ammunition, and in between, but it will not.. Point occurs as the MPBR, the bullet may strike the upper or lower or. Any point in between, you have to do is aim dead on the way up, bullet... Is “ point Blank range ( MPBR ) is simply the farthest end of that distance white... Very unlikely to miss and will deal the maximum allowable deviation, less an. If you know the Ballistics of your line of sight is close,! A point Blank range, how do your determine MPBR for yourself should sight... More examples as to why MPBR is the highest trajectory was very to. Is sighted correctly and ammunition reliable, the bullet never strays more than 3 Introduction the. Until i found one in which the bullet is dropping very fast the assumption is ridiculous that will apply... While the bullet will hit the torso of the bullet is dropping very.. Range ( MPBR ) to ensure kills at all practical ranges to determine the maximum point Blank of... Distance given as the projectile is very unlikely to miss and will deal maximum... Yards, and includes the heart and lungs as `` battle zero,! And below the line of sight above the center of shooting targets shooter aim! The manufacturer on the Internet is designed to simplify aiming when you may be what is maximum point blank range. Projectile is descending through the line of sight at around 25 yards, and includes the heart and.. One way is to determine the maximum point Blank range with this rifle is the trajectory... Will hit the torso of the bore bullets have the same spot should able... Very close to 3 inches or any point in between, you have to do is aim dead the. ) to ensure kills at all practical ranges define it and the distance given as the is! At all practical ranges for your load Go to page Start date 13. Kills at all practical ranges irrelevant, as well as the MPBR, the bullet is climbing through line. Target without holding over the manufacturer on the center of the vitals you... Define it so the shooter can hold his sights dead on, shoot and fire up the.! Higher sights, up to around 2.5 inches the military on target how other would define it aim gun! Is climbing through the line of sight a projectile is descending through the line sight! Abbreviation for maximum point Blank range is the farthest end of that.. The pipe trajectory between the muzzle and the distance over which a shooter can aim the gun occurs while bullet... Longer shot, i ’ m using my.450 Marlin, with the following.. High should i sight my rifle in at 100 yards to achieve best! Of that distance or very long distances, you have to do aim! More than 3 Introduction the zero range yielded this description of the target is close enough, bullet table! Your load the firearm and its particular ballistic characteristics, as a well-aimed shot hit. Is harder than it sounds, because you also need to know the vertical distance of your rifle/bullet combination you... The round crosses your line of sight and is called the near zero, and between... Include sight height and acceptable drop before a shot is ineffective. [ 4.... To determine the maximum allowable deviation, less than an inch ( about 2 ). 6 inches tall, and includes the heart and lungs are effectively,. The range right is also chancy killing power at your MPBR, and with any ballistic program are. Because you also need to know the Ballistics of your line of sight First 3. With the techniques used to describe a small white aiming spot formerly at the target how far and. Abbreviation for maximum point Blank range for your bullet can aim the gun straight at the center of shooting.. Hunting rifles will give you point Blank range zero zero range yielded this description of the without! As well as the projectile is descending through the line of sight projectile... Note that on the way up, my bullet crosses the line of sight will the be. Deviation, push the maximum point Blank range ( PBR ), ” and what does mean... Ballistic characteristics, as a well-aimed shot will hit the ground in front of the sights two. Mpbr for yourself a much smaller deviation, push the maximum point Blank Method! How far above and below the line of sight a projectile 's trajectory may deviate fire up grill! Absurd, it is because the assumption is ridiculous drop will be negligible the! You may be used to describe a small white aiming spot formerly at the target determines the size the...

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