P. amboinicus is an aromatic herb listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) as “cultivation escape, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” and is known to be invasive outside of its native range including Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and the Pacific Islands (PIER, 2014). https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Wagner WL, Lorence DH, 2014. It is also considered as a diuretic herbal agent and its leaves have a pungent taste and a pleasant odour. It is widely cultivated around the world for use in food and medicine, and has been known to escape from cultivation (Randall, 2012) into ecosystems where it will compete with native flora by forming dense carpets (PIER, 2014). Flowers terminal, spicate, 10-20 cm long, densely pubescent, the verticils 10-20(or more)-flowered, subglobose, the bracts 3-4 mm long, hirsute and glandular; pedicels slender, hirsute, to 5 mm long; calyx campanulate, 1.5-4 mm long, hirsute and glandular, the upper lip erect, broadly ovate-oblong, the other teeth narrow, acute; corolla pale blue or mauve to pink, 8-12 mm long, the tube declinate, 3-4 mm long, expanding distally, pubescent without, the upper lip to 4.5 mm long, 3 mm wide, erect, puberulent, the lower lop to 5-6 mm long, 4 mm wide, concave; stamens with filaments mostly fused into a tube around the style. Common names for Plectranthus amboinicus: Barbados Thyme, Country Borage, Cuban Oregano, Five Seasons Herb, French Thyme, Indian Mint, Jamaican Thyme, Mexican Oregano, Soup Mint, Spanish Thyme, Plectranthus amboinicus is included in the following B and T … Plant common names… not so much. Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). (Flore de Madagascar et des Comores. Plectranthus species are also used for dry season fodder (Lukhoba et al., 2006). Risk of introduction for P. amboinicus is high, as the species is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as weedy and an environmental weed (Randall, 2012), and is known to be invasive outside of its native range including Cuba (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012) and the Pacific Islands (PIER, 2014). This evergreen perennial works well in mixed beds and mass plantings and as a ground-cover. tall. Flowers are borne in 10-20-flowered, densely Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year, Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. This plant is nicknamed “amboinicus” from Ambon, an island where a botanist lives, his name is … Spreng. The Many Health Benefits of Panikoorka. Food plants of the world: An illustrated guide. Whistler WA, 2000. velvety spikes, 10-20 cm long. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Stearn WT, 1992. > 0°C, dry winters), Widely cultivated in home gardens and commercially for culinary, medicinal, and ornamental use, Used medicinally in Africa, Asia, Pacific and Americas, Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. The origin of P. amboinicus is unknown, but it may be native to Africa and possibly India (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, Bolivia Checklist, 2014. The plant is sometimes prostrate at base, with the branchlets rising up, densely hairy. Cuban Oregano is a sprawling and somewhat succulent herb, growing to 1 m Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Merrill E D, 1923. Plectranthus species are also used for dry season fodder (Lukhoba et al., 2006), which might also result in further spread. cultivated world-wide. The leaves are strongly flavoured and make an P. amboinicus is of unknown origin but possibly Africa and India (Wagner and Lorence, 2014), and it has since been distributed and cultivated pantropically. (2010). The species is also used in magico-religious rituals to ward off spirits, as a food additive, vegetable, insect repellant, and for its essential oils (Hanelt et al., 2001; Lukhoba et al., 2006). The Indian Borage plant has the name “Plectranthus” which comes from the Greek “plectron”, meaning spur, and “Anthos”, meaning flower, this refers to a flower that is shaped like a nail. English: country borage; Cuban oregano; French thyme; Indian mint; Mexican mint; soup mint; Spanish thyme National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. can also be used to flavour meat dishes, especially beef, lamb and game. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website., Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. Manila, Philippines: Bureau of Printing. Humbert H, 1951. Online database. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. ... Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae – Plants Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – … The PLANTS Database. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM, Forzza R, 2010. It has also been recorded growing on roadsides (PIER, 2014) and can escape or become naturalized in disturbed places (Whistler, 2000). Fruit nutlets smooth, pale brown, ca. Botanical name: Coleus amboinicus Family: Lamiaceae (Mint family) Synonyms: Plectranthus amboinicus, Coleus aromaticus, Plectranthus aromaticus. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. up, densely hairy. Plectranthus is a paleotropical genus comprising around 300 species of annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, often succulent (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). Common Name: Cuban Oregano Family: Lamiaceae Lindl. Many Lamiaceae species have square stems (although square stems are also found in other families), aromatic aerial parts when crushed, simple opposite leaves, and two-lipped flowers. P. amboinicus is distinguishable by its square-shaped stem, opposite leaves, strong and pleasant fragrance, and pale blue-to-pink two-lipped flowers (Whistler, 2000). St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. Its most popular latin name is Plectranthus amboinicus, but this name is also used commonly, mistakenly for closely related species Plectranthus tomentosa, Plectrantus cremnus and their many hybrids. A Global Compendium of Weeds., Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. lip up to 5-6 x 4 mm, concave. Flora of South Africa. Botanical Name : Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) A plant with many names, Plectranthus amboinicus is commonly called Cuban oregano and also bears the monikers Mexican mint, Indian borage and Caribbean oregano. I see the reason for the confusion! http://plants.usda.gov. Hymoquinone (5) was further identified as a nonpolar ingredient from the hexane extract of P. amboinicus to suppress the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). The risk of introduction for this species is likely to remain high due to its continued popularity as a cultivated culinary and medicinal herb. 1124 pp. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website., St. Louis, Missouri; Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (except Ornamentals). Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbok on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. glasshouse production), Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press. This species has many vernacular names, most of them inaccurately associating P. amboinicus as a mint, thyme, or oregano. 0.7 mm long, 0.5 mm wide. Benth. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Bird common names are highly regulated. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, CABI, Undated. Old stems are smooth (glabrescent). Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. http://www.nhbs.com/title/79635/flore-de-madagascar-et-des-comores-fam-175. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. margin or entire toward base. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Coleus amboinicus Lour. Flowers are pale blue or mauve to P. amboinicus has spread to most tropical parts of the world through intentional human introduction for cultivation. The risk of introduction for this species is likely to remain high due to its continued popularity as a cultivated culinary and medicinal herb. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 103(1):1-24. Plectranthus amboinicus is an attractive, evergreen, perennial plant up to 3.3 feet (1 m) tall, with... Hardiness. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/, Humbert H, 1951. [Wagner and Lorence, 2014]. Paris, France: Imprimerie officielle; Muse´um national d'histoire naturelle. Leaf blade is fleshy, broadly ovate to circular, rhombic, coarsely toothed at margin or entire toward base. Further research is recommended on control of the species. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng belongs to family Lamiaceae, known as country borage in English. Flower stalks are slender, up to 5 mm long. Panikoorka, or Plectranthus amboinicus, is a popular remedy used in South Indian states to treat coughs and colds in children.The plant is known for its numerous therapeutic benefits, and is particularly popular in Kerala. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Family 175- Labiatae (Flora of Madagascar and the Comoros. The species can regenerate vegetatively as well as by seeds (Wagner and Lorence, 2014). 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